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talks about life cycle analysis for various alternative aviation fuels. They argue that Fischer-Tropsch synthesis fuels from municipal solid waste can have dramatically different impacts depending on the biogenic content of the waste.
"Plastic in MSW effectively sequesters carbon over a long time period if it remains in a landfill, whereas this is less likely for biogenic material, much of whose carbon content would be released as methane or oxidized if left in a landfill, or combusted into biogenic CO2. MSW with higher plastic content thus has a higher GHG intensity ."
There can be indirect benefits from using the biogenic material for fuel " MSW-derived may have high indirect emissions savings due to avoided methane emissions at landfills."
It could get complicated for policymakers to incentivise fuel from the paper and food components of refuse but discriminate against burning plastics !
You have to think of how much carbon it takes to get crude oil out the ground, then to transport and refine it etc... that is where the C02 saving comes from. The other benefit of SAF is that it produces no sulphur and burns a lot cleaner than regular kerosene. SAF compared to jet A1 is like comparing bottled water to tap water. Because it burns cleaner it means less engine maintenance, more efficient flights and produces less contrail cirrus clouds (which themselves are responsible for global warming).
Also, landfill produces methane which is over 80x more devestating as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (in its first 2 years after liberation). Obviously converting this to jet fuel saves that as well. Crude oil trapped nicely underground doesn't harm the environment in any way. I could go on and on and on but I have answered these questions before, like I say, check out my twitter thread, do your own research and look back on this bulletin board. The information you seek is out there.
There is a reason SAF is hailed as the "here and now solution".
tradingjester - good point! The fuel produced by the Velocys process would release the CO2 that the biomass going into had captured when it was growing rather than releasing CO2 that was captured very many millions of years ago and adding to the atmosphere.
What actually powers the plant though, how much energy is used and does this have an effect on the overall CO2 balance?
When the 49,000 tonnes of that kerosene are combusted, they would will release as much CO2 as any other fuel so wouldn't you actually end up with quite a bit more CO2 than you would have done if you just combusted normal kerosene?
All I can find on the website is 500,000 tonnes of refuse gives 60 million litres of jet and road fuel. Using the density of kerosene as 0.82, I make that 49,000 tonnes of fuel leaving 451,000 tonnes to go up the chimney.
Morning henderti, I have seen that detail somewhere but I've not written it down so don't have it to hand. Maybe try the Altalto specific website.
From memory you're right, the only significant emissions from the plant are C02 & water and a tiny proportion of residue going to landfill. Whilst there's still a lot of C02 emitted overall there's 70% less emitted in this process than there is making jetfuel from fossil fuels which is the selling point. If of course the plants do plug into CCS tech then the sites become overall carbon negative as well.
I have only seen the figures that Solena had for their gasification/Velocys plant which quoted an input of 575,000 metric tonnes/yr of refuse getting converted into 39,500 tonnes of jet fuel and 39,300 tonnes of diesel ( and 49 MW of electricity of which 3MW was exported and the rest used in the plant). This still leaves nigh on 500,000 tonnes to go up the chimney as CO2 and water. It strikes me that there is an awful lot of incineration going on in those figures.
Sense, I think they'll struggle to hit those dates. They were forecast when Shell (and their PR value) was in the frame. They'll need to on-board somebody else within the next couple of months in order to get close to those dates. In addition, as alluded to by VLS previously, there needs to be a change to policy in order for their plant to be economic. Those two aspects need to be put to bed first.
gold trig they are not incinerating rubbish, they are gasifying it so big difference. It releases 70% less C02 as a result with the output of the gasification being carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas) which is then converted or upgraded to products. The remaining 30% is either emitted to atmosphere OR in the case of Altalto & Bayou can be sequestered underground using CCS tech which will make the process overall carbon negative. This is completely different to simply incinerating using the calorific value of the garbage to heat a steam turbine and generate electricity.
As for hydrogen, we've had those debates before. They aren't feasible for long-haul aviation yet due to many, many things but power to weight ratio being the primary reason. Long-haul aviation accounts for 2/3rds of all aviation emissions as well so its where the most impact can be made and demand will come. SAF is the here and now solution, hydrogen powered planes for commercial use and for long haul are decades away (Feel free to look back on my posting history or twitter feed to find more info on why hydrogen planes aren't a threat to SAF).
The risk here is not that SAF wont be in massive demand or that mandates won't come etc... it is whether VLS can attract the investment. If we get it, we are 10 bagging just for starters and if we don't we are dropping like a stone back to around 2-3p imho. Financial close on Bayout is end of this year and FC for Altalto is next March. Not really long to wait in the scheme of things.
February 26, 20201 Is SAF ready to take-off this year?
The CEO of Velocys Henrik Wareborn describes how the 12 months ahead looks set to be crucial for the development of the UK’s SAF industry. He said: “Over the last year, significant progress was made by both industry and government, including a major project milestone for Altalto, Europe’s first wasteto- jet-fuel facility being developed by Velocys and our co-investor British Airways. “In May 2020, Altalto obtained planning permission for our site near Immingham, located on the banks of the Humber in North East Lincolnshire. We aim to complete the front end engineering design (FEED) stage and are targeting financial close in 2022, subject to funding. “This would mean the plant could be producing SAF from municipal solid waste at industrial scale from 2025 – enough to power over 1,000 flights from London to New York each year. “As hosts of the COP26 UN climate summit taking place in November, the UK has a unique platform and a once in a generation opportunity to demonstrate global leadership on tackling aviation emissions – one of the hardest to decarbonise sectors and one that is uniquely global in nature.